The spatial and temporal distribution of the metal mineralisation in Eastern Australia and the relationship of the observed patterns to giant ore deposits

Robinson, Larry (2007). The spatial and temporal distribution of the metal mineralisation in Eastern Australia and the relationship of the observed patterns to giant ore deposits PhD Thesis, School of Physical Sciences, The University of Queensland.

       
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Click to show the corresponding preview Brandt_1993_.mpg Brandt_1993_.mpg video/mpeg 468.89KB 149
Click to show the corresponding preview Machetel_2003.mpeg Machetel_2003.mpeg video/mpeg 3.67MB 106
Powerpoint_6_1.pdf Powerpoint 6.1: The Golden Network in the Trunkey Creek-Ophir Region NSW, Australia application/pdf 2.31MB 429
Powerpoint_6_10.pdf Powerpoint 6.10: Meso-Scale Patterns in Gravity Data for Eastern Australia and Their Relationship to Fossil Impact Craters application/pdf 3.06MB 305
Powerpoint_6_11.pdf Powepoint 6.11: Macro-Scale Patterns in Eastern Australia using Binary Slices of Gravity Data application/pdf 6.28MB 403
Powerpoint_6_2.pdf Powerpoint 6.2: Spatial Patterns in Gold Deposits for Southeastern Australia application/pdf 4.56MB 435
Powerpoint_6_3.pdf Powerpoint 6.3: Spatial Patterns of Gold Deposits in the Gundagai Region, New South Wales, Australia application/pdf 23.59MB 817
Powerpoint_6_4.pdf Powerpoint 6.4: Spatial Patterns in the Gold Deposits of Nevada, U.S.A. application/pdf 1.81MB 1109
Powerpoint_6_5.pdf Powerpoint 6.5: Spatial Patterns in Gold Deposits for the Bendigo-Ballarat Region Victoria, Australia application/pdf 8.84MB 944
Powerpoint_6_5_version2.pdf Powerpoint 6-5 v. 2 - Spatial Patterns of Gold Deposits, Bendigo-Ballarat Region, Victoria, Australia application/pdf 8.15MB 541
Powerpoint_6_6.pdf Powerpoint 6.6: Spatial Patterns of Mineral Deposits in the Broken Hill Region New South Wales, Australia application/pdf 4.56MB 1071
Powerpoint_6_7.pdf Powerpoint 6.7: Proposed Temporal Patterns for Mineral Deposits in the Broken Hill Region New South Wales, Australia application/pdf 1.96MB 507
Powerpoint_6_8.pdf Powerpoint 6.8: Spatial Patterns of Mineral Deposits in the Mount Isa Region Queensland, Australia application/pdf 1.48MB 670
Powerpoint_6_9.pdf Powerpoint 6.9: Macro-Scale Patterns in Eastern Australia using Binary Slices of Magnetic Data application/pdf 6.01MB 326
Click to show the corresponding preview benard.mpeg benard.mpeg video/mpeg 1.77MB 55
ljr_phd_8_07a.pdf Full text of thesis application/pdf 6.87MB 3573
lr_contact.pdf Author contact details application/pdf 8.52KB 203
n01front_robinson.pdf n01front_robinson.pdf application/pdf 824.21KB 171
n02content_robinson.pdf n02content_robinson.pdf application/pdf 47.16MB 389
ppt_6_5_rev.pdf Reasons for Revision of Powerpoint 6.5 application/pdf 6.77KB 123
Author Robinson, Larry
Thesis Title The spatial and temporal distribution of the metal mineralisation in Eastern Australia and the relationship of the observed patterns to giant ore deposits
School, Centre or Institute School of Physical Sciences
Institution The University of Queensland
Publication date 2007-08-16
Thesis type PhD Thesis
Supervisor Suzanne D. Golding
Richard Wilson
Total pages 258
Collection year 2007
Language eng
Subjects 260106 Ore Deposit Petrology
Abstract/Summary The introduced mineral deposit model (MDM) is the product of a trans-disciplinary study, based on Complexity and General Systems Theory. Both investigate the abstract organization of phenomena, independent of their substance, type, or spatial or temporal scale of existence. The focus of the research has been on giant, hydrothermal mineral deposits. They constitute <0.001% of the total number of deposits yet contain 70-85% of the world's metal resources. Giants are the definitive exploration targets. They are more profitable to exploit and less susceptible to fluctuations of the market. Consensus has it that the same processes that generate small deposits also form giants but those processes are simply longer, vaster, and larger. Heat is the dominant factor in the genesis of giant mineral deposits. A paleothermal map shows where the vast heat required to generate a giant has been concentrated in a large space, and even allows us to deduce the duration of the process. To generate a paleothermal map acceptable to the scientific community requires reproducibility. Experimentation with various approaches to pattern recognition of geochemical data showed that the AUTOCLUST algorithm not only gave reproducibility but also gave the most consistent, most meaningful results. It automatically extracts boundaries based on Voronoi and Delaunay tessellations. The user does not specify parameters; however, the modeller does have tools to explore the data. This approach is near ideal in that it removes much of the humangenerated bias. This algorithm reveals the radial, spatial distribution, of gold deposits in the Lachlan Fold Belt of southeastern Australia at two distinct scales – repeating patterns every ~80 km and ~230 km. Both scales of patterning are reflected in the geology. The ~80 km patterns are nested within the ~230 km patterns revealing a self-similar, geometrical relationship. It is proposed that these patterns originate from Rayleigh-Bénard convection in the mantle. At the Rayleigh Number appropriate for the mantle, the stable planform is the spoke pattern, where hot mantle material is moving upward near the centre of the pattern and outward along the radial arms. Discontinuities in the mantle, Rayleigh-Bénard convection in the mantle, and the spatial distribution of giant mineral deposits, are correlative. The discontinuities in the Earth are acting as platforms from which Rayleigh-Bénard convection can originate. Shallow discontinuities give rise to plumelets, which manifest at the crust as repeating patterns ranging, from ~100 to ~1,000 km in diameter. Deeper discontinuities give rise to plumes, which become apparent at the crust as repeating patterns ranging from >1,000 to ~4,000 km in diameter. The deepest discontinuities give rise to the superplumes, which become detectable at the crust as repeating patterns ranging from >4,000 to >10,000 km in diameter. Rayleigh-Bénard convection concentrates the reservoir of heat in the mantle into specific locations in the crust; thereby providing the vast heat requirements for the processes that generate giant, hydrothermal mineral deposits. The radial spatial distribution patterns observed for gold deposits are also present for base metal deposits. At the supergiant Broken Hill deposit in far western New South Wales, Australia, the higher temperature Broken Hill-type deposits occur in a radial pattern while the lower temperature deposits occur in concentric patterns. The supergiant Broken Hill deposit occurs at the very centre of the pattern. If the supergiant Broken Hill Deposit was buried beneath alluvium, water or younger rocks, it would now be possible to predict its location with accuracy measured in tens of square kilometres. This predictive accuracy is desired by every exploration manager of every exploration company. The giant deposits at Broken Hill, Olympic Dam, and Mount Isa all occur on the edge of an annulus. There are at least two ways of creating an annulus on the Earth's surface. One is through Rayleigh-Bénard convection and the other is through meteor impact. It is likely that only 'large' meteors (those >10 km in diameter) would have any permanent impact on the mantle. Lesser meteors would leave only a superficial scar that would be eroded away. The permanent scars in the mantle act as ‘accidental templates’ consisting of concentric and possibly radial fractures that impose those structures on any rocks that were subsequently laid down or emplaced over the mantle. In southeastern Australia, the proposed Deniliquin Impact structure has been an 'accidental template' providing a 'line-of-least-resistance' for the ascent of the ~2,000 km diameter, offshore, Cape Howe Plume. The western and northwestern radial arms of this plume have created the very geometry of the Lachlan Fold Belt, as well as giving rise to the spatial distribution of the granitic rocks in that belt and ultimately to the gold deposits. The interplay between the templating of the mantle by meteor impacts and the ascent of plumelets, plumes or superplumes from various discontinuities in the mantle is quite possibly the reason that mineral deposits occur where they do.
Additional Notes Please note: Revision of PowerPoint 6-5 Coriolis versus Earth Tide Forces Further research has been carried out into the possible rotation of Rayleigh-Bénard convection plumes in the mantle. This research indicates that the likely forces causing a anticlockwise rotation of the plumes in the southern hemisphere is Earth Tide Forces. See: PowerPoint 6-5 VERSION 2 - Spatial Patterns of Gold Deposits, Bendigo-Ballarat Region, Victoria, Australia.ppt and Bostrom, R. C., 2000, Tectonic consequences of the Earth's rotation, Oxford University Press. New York, NY, United States. Pages: 266. 2000.

 
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