Bovine enterovirus: Molecular characterisation and evaluation as a vaccine vector

McCarthy, Fiona (2003). Bovine enterovirus: Molecular characterisation and evaluation as a vaccine vector PhD Thesis, School of Molecular and Microbial Sciences, The University of Queensland.

       
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n01front.pdf n01front.pdf application/pdf 83.93KB 3
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n03Chapter2.pdf n03Chapter2.pdf application/pdf 74.74KB 3
n04Chapter3.pdf n04Chapter3.pdf application/pdf 4.39MB 3
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Author McCarthy, Fiona
Thesis Title Bovine enterovirus: Molecular characterisation and evaluation as a vaccine vector
School, Centre or Institute School of Molecular and Microbial Sciences
Institution The University of Queensland
Publication date 2003
Thesis type PhD Thesis
Supervisor Greg Smith
John Mattick
Total pages 250
Collection year 2003
Language eng
Subjects L
270303 Virology
780105 Biological sciences
Abstract/Summary The purpose of this study is to characterise Australian isolates of bovine enterovirus (BEV) and develop a suitable isolate as a replication-limited vaccine vector. Advantages of using BEV as a vector are that it both elicits mucosal immunity and has naturally occurring temperature stable isolates so that a BEV vector could be administered orally to elicit a protective immune response in the host and should not require cold storage to maintain vaccine efficacy. Furthermore, wildtype BEV causes no or only mild clinical symptoms in its host and if BEV is used as a vaccine vector, reversion to wildtype phenotype would not cause deleterious effects in vaccinated cattle. To date many of the viruses used as vaccine vectors are produced by modifying the structural proteins of the virion so that they contain heterologous sequences. However, each of the four BEV structural proteins are essential and it is not possible to insert large sequences without disrupting the virion. While this study looks at potential insertion sites within the BEV virion, the main focus for the development of BEV as a vaccine vector is through using a replication-limited BEV vector. The development of a replication-limited vector requires the deletion of an essential viral gene that is then replaced in vitro using an expression vector. When the replication-limited vector and its complementing expression cassette are co-transfected into a permissive cell line all the proteins required for viral assembly are produced but only replication deficient genomes are available to be encapsidated. The physically intact but replication deficient viral particles produced in vitro can then infect permissive cells in vivo, resulting in the production of all but the deleted viral protein. Moreover, the deleted portion of the viral genome can be replaced with heterologous sequences within the replication-limited BEV vector. These heterologous sequences can then be expressed in vivo where they can be recognised by the host immune system. Three BEV isolates representing the Australian subserotypes were used in this study: K2577, SL305 and 66/27. The full-length sequences of K2577 and SL305 were obtained as well as partial sequence from the third isolate, 66/27. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis showed all three isolates were more closely related to BEV-1 subserotypes than BEV-2. This is the first report to indicate that Australian BEV isolates can be classified as BEV-1. Analysis of the 5’-untranslated region (5’-UTR) indicated that BEV isolates were recombinants with each other and that these recombinant regions correspond to the duplicated cloverleaf structure which is present in BEV 5’-UTR but absent from other enteroviruses. While BEV was initially reported to be stable at higher temperatures, later studies showed that this property varied between isolates and this is also true of the three isolates used in this study. Since it is important not only to ensure that the isolate used as a vaccine vector is temperature stable but also the resulting vaccine vector, the molecular basis of BEV temperature stability was also studied. Using sequence data from the Australian isolates, regions of variation were located and hybrid BEV created. Unfortunately, all of the hybrid BEV produced in this study were non-infectious and could not be used to for further characterisation of BEV temperature stability. Preparatory to constructing replication-limited BEV, a system for full-length amplification of BEV was developed. By including sequences for the bacterial promoter T7 on the positive sense primer used for full-length amplification of BEV, it was possible to prepare full-length transcripts of the amplified product and these were shown to produce infectious BEV particles when transfected into to cell lines that supported BEV growth. Subsequent cloning of the K2577 amplification product resulted in infectious clones for this BEV isolate and these clones were used to prepare replication-limited BEV constructs. To test the replication-limited system BEV structural genes were replaced with a reporter gene to produce replication deficient infectious clones. Complementary constructs containing only the deleted structural genes were also prepared to express the deleted genes. While it was expected that these expression vector would be able to complement the replication deficient BEV in vivo, co-transfection of the replication-limited construct with its complementing expression vector did not produce viable BEV.
Keyword Bovine enterovirus
BEV
vaccine vector
phylogenetic analysis
virology

 
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Created: Fri, 21 Nov 2008, 17:34:41 EST