Alcohol consumption in Muslim Arab and Asian samples: a test of the cognitive model

Mrs Tayyiba AlMarri (2008). Alcohol consumption in Muslim Arab and Asian samples: a test of the cognitive model PhD Thesis, School of Psychology, The University of Queensland.

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Author Mrs Tayyiba AlMarri
Thesis Title Alcohol consumption in Muslim Arab and Asian samples: a test of the cognitive model
School, Centre or Institute School of Psychology
Institution The University of Queensland
Publication date 2008-03
Thesis type PhD Thesis
Supervisor Professor Tian Oei
Professor Taha Amir
Total pages 329
Total black and white pages 329
Subjects 380000 Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences
Formatted abstract
The purpose of the current body of work was to investigate the pattern of drinking behaviours
and the utility of the cognitive model of drinking (e.g. Oei & Baldwin, 1994) in Muslim Arab
and Asian samples. The first part of the thesis provides an overview of alcohol consumption
patterns in the Western world and reviews the literature pertaining to the theoretical cognitive
constructs that delineate drinking behaviours, namely alcohol expectancies (AEs) and
drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) (Chapter One). A comprehensive literature review was
conducted into alcohol use and abuse in Muslim Arabian Gulf countries and in two Asian
countries. This section highlights the current dearth of empirical research conducted in the
region (Chapter Two).
Section Two discusses the measurement issues in alcohol research. Since none of the selfreport
measures used in the current thesis had previous psychometric evaluation, a series of
psychometric validation studies were performed, in order to ensure that these instruments
were culturally and psychometrically sound for use with Muslim samples living in Arab and
Asian countries. Chapters Three and Four examine the psychometric properties of the
Drinking Expectancy Questionnaire-Revised and the Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy
Questionnaire-Revised. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to
assess the consistency of the theoretical constructs; in addition the validity and reliability of
the instruments were examined. Modifications were made to increase the cultural
appropriateness of the wording of these instruments, however the concept and construct of
beliefs about the outcome of drinking and about one’s ability to refuse drinking were found to
be clear for the current sample. Chapter Five examines the psychometric properties of the
Severity of Alcohol Dependence questionnaire and Chapter Six examines the Arabic
translation of the Alcohol Use Identification Test; good levels of internal consistency andconstruct, concurrent and predictive validity are found for these. Chapter Seven presents the
development and validation of the Short-Muslim Practice and Belief Scale (S-MPBS). This
scale demonstrates good reliability and structural validity; moreover it successfully
discriminates between drinkers and lifetime abstainers. These studies indicate that constructs
for alcohol related cognitions and dependency are transferable from Western subjects to
Muslims living in the Arabian Gulf and in Asia. However, caution is advised in cross-cultural
comparisons, because of the modifications that have been made. The revised versions of
these questionnaires were used in all subsequent studies presented in the thesis.
The third part of the thesis investigates the pattern of behaviours in alcohol use, and the
applicability of the cognitive model of drinking to Muslim samples. Chapter Eight examines
the pattern of alcohol use in terms of percentage of life-time abstainers, quantity of alcohol
consumed annually, frequency of drinking days, and dependency level, in addition to
associated socio-demographic, cognitive and religious variables, among Muslim samples
living in two Arab countries (United Arab Emirates n = 197 and Oman n = 170) and two
Asian countries (Indonesia n = 145 and Malaysia n = 143). As predicted, high abstention
rates (82%) are found in this Muslim community sample. The examination of the theoretical
cognitive model of drinking in Chapter Nine generally indicates partial support of the twoprocess
alcohol expectancy model (Oei & Baldwin, 1994). The belief in one’s own ability to
refuse alcohol in drinking situations is a salient variable in predicting parameters of drinking
behaviours within this sample, as are beliefs about the positive outcome of drinking; however
negative alcohol expectancies are not predictive of drinking. In this chapter the moderation
and mediation role of DRSE on the relationship between alcohol expectancies and parameters
of drinking is studied. Results show that DRSE mediates the relationship between general
AEs, positive AEs and dependency AEs and alcohol use.The pattern of alcohol use behaviours was also investigated in a special sample (Muslim
prison sample, n = 202) in a comparison of alcohol use among community and incarcerated
samples living in the United Arab Emirates (Chapter Ten). Consistent with international
literature, high detrimental levels of alcohol consumption are evident among this sample.
In the final part of the thesis (Chapter Eleven) findings from earlier studies are consolidated.
Limitations of the present research are presented, as well as the challenges and experiences in
researching alcohol in Muslim cultures, with the intention of assisting with future research.

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Created: Wed, 24 Sep 2008, 19:42:58 EST by Mrs Tayyiba Almarri on behalf of School of Communication and Arts