The provision of accessible and cost-effective treatment to a large number of problem drinkers is a significant challenge to health services. Previous data suggest that a correspondence intervention may assist in these efforts. We recruited 277 people with alcohol abuse problems and randomly allocated them to immediate cognitive behavioral treatment by correspondence (ICBT), 2 months in a waiting list (WL2-CBT), self-monitoring (SM2-CBT), or extended self-monitoring (SM6-CBT). Everyone received correspondence CBT after the control period. Over 2 months later, no drop in alcohol intake occurred in the waiting list, and CBT had a greater impact than SM. No further gains from SM were seen after 2 months. Effects of CBT were well maintained and were equivalent, whether it was received immediately or after 2 to 6 months of self-monitoring. Weekly alcohol intake fell 48% from pretreatment to 18.6 alcohol units at 12 months. Our results confirmed that correspondence CBT for alcohol abuse was accessible and effective for people with low physical dependence.