Bizonplast, a unique chloroplast in the epidermal cells of microphylls in the shade plant Selaginella erythropus (Selaginellaceae)

Sheue, Chiou-Rong, Sarafis, Vassilios, Kiew, Ruth, Liu, Ho-Yih, Salino, Alexandre, Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long, Yang, Yuen-Po, Tsai, Chi-Chu, Lin, Chun-Hung, Yong, Jean W. H. and Ku, Maurice S. B. (2007) Bizonplast, a unique chloroplast in the epidermal cells of microphylls in the shade plant Selaginella erythropus (Selaginellaceae). American Journal of Botany, 94 12: 1922-1929. doi:10.3732/ajb.94.12.1922


Author Sheue, Chiou-Rong
Sarafis, Vassilios
Kiew, Ruth
Liu, Ho-Yih
Salino, Alexandre
Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long
Yang, Yuen-Po
Tsai, Chi-Chu
Lin, Chun-Hung
Yong, Jean W. H.
Ku, Maurice S. B.
Title Bizonplast, a unique chloroplast in the epidermal cells of microphylls in the shade plant Selaginella erythropus (Selaginellaceae)
Formatted title
Bizonplast, a unique chloroplast in the epidermal cells of microphylls in the shade plant  Selaginella erythropus (Selaginellaceae)
Journal name American Journal of Botany   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0002-9122
Publication date 2007
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.3732/ajb.94.12.1922
Volume 94
Issue 12
Start page 1922
End page 1929
Total pages 8
Editor K. V. Niklas
Place of publication United States
Publisher Botanical Society of America
Collection year 2008
Language eng
Subject C1
279999 Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified
780105 Biological sciences
Abstract Study of the unique leaf anatomy and chloroplast structure in shade-adapted plants will aid our understanding of how plants use light efficiently in low light environments. Unusual chloroplasts in terms of size and thylakoid membrane stacking have been described previously in several deep-shade plants. In this study, a single giant cup-shaped chloroplast, termed a bizonoplast, was found in the abaxial epidermal cells of the dorsal microphylls and the adaxial epidermal cells of the ventral microphylls in the deep-shade spike moss Selaginella erythropus. Bizonoplasts are dimorphic in ultrastructure: the upper zone is occupied by numerous layers of 2–4 stacked thylakoid membranes while the lower zone contains both unstacked stromal thylakoids and thylakoid lamellae stacked in normal grana structure oriented in different directions. In contrast, other cell types in the microphylls contain chloroplasts with typical structure. This unique chloroplast has not been reported from any other species. The enlargement of epidermal cells into funnel-shaped, photosynthetic cells coupled with specific localization of a large bizonoplast in the lower part of the cells and differential modification in ultrastructure within the chloroplast may allow the plant to better adapt to low light. Further experiments are required to determine whether this shade-adapted organism derives any evolutionary or ecophysiological fitness from these unique chloroplasts.
Keyword bizonoplast
chloroplast
iridescence
iridoplast
Selaginella
shade plant
structure
thylakoid stacking
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code

 
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