The effect of hydration status on the echocardiographic measurements of normal cats

Campbell, F. E. and Kittleson, M. D. (2007) The effect of hydration status on the echocardiographic measurements of normal cats. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 21 5: 1008-1015. doi:10.1892/0891-6640(2007)21[1008:TEOHSO]2.0.CO;2

Author Campbell, F. E.
Kittleson, M. D.
Title The effect of hydration status on the echocardiographic measurements of normal cats
Journal name Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0891-6640
Publication date 2007-09
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1892/0891-6640(2007)21[1008:TEOHSO]2.0.CO;2
Open Access Status DOI
Volume 21
Issue 5
Start page 1008
End page 1015
Total pages 8
Place of publication Hoboken, NJ, United States
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell Publishing
Language eng
Subject 0707 Veterinary Sciences
Formatted abstract
Background: Diagnosis of cardiomyopathy of cats is based on 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiography. However, circulating fluid volume largely determines diastolic cardiac chamber dimensions, and reduced diastolic volume in other species results in what has been called “pseudohypertrophy of the ventricular myocardium.”

Hypothesis: Altered hydration produces changes on 2D echocardiography that may confound the diagnosis or severity assessment of cardiomyopathy of cats.

Animals: Ten normal colony-sourced mixed breed cats were included.

Methods: Cats were examined by echocardiography at baseline and at completion of 3 protocols (volume depletion and maintenance-rate and anesthetic-rate IV fluid administration) applied in randomized crossover design with a 6–7 day washout period.

Results: Volume depletion increased diastolic left ventricular interventricular septal (IVSd) and free wall diameter (4.5 ± 0.4 to 5.8 ± 0.6 mm; P < .001) with wall thickness exceeding 6 mm in 4 cats. Diastolic left ventricular internal diameter (LVIDd) decreased, and reduction in systolic left ventricular internal diameter (LVIDs) produced end-systolic cavity obliteration in 7 cats. Left-atrial-to-aortic-root ratio (LA: Ao, 1.4 ± 0.2 to 1.2 ± 0.1, P < .05) and left atrial area in diastole (LAAd) decreased with volume depletion. Maintenance-rate IV fluid administration increased LAAd and fractional shortening (FS%). Anesthetic-rate IV fluid administration increased LVIDd, FS%, LAAd, and LA: Ao ratios (to 1.7 ± 0.1, P < .01), producing an LA: Ao ratio above normal limits in 6 cats. A systolic heart murmur developed with administration of fluid at maintenance (n = 1) and anesthetic rates (n = 6).

Conclusions: Altered hydration status produces changes in the echocardiographic examination of normal cats that may lead to an erroneous diagnosis of cardiomyopathy or mask its presence. Hydration status should be considered during echocardiographic examination in cats.
Keyword Volume depletion
Fluid administration
Heart murmur
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code
Institutional Status UQ

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: ERA 2012 Admin Only
School of Veterinary Science Publications
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Created: Mon, 18 Feb 2008, 15:08:37 EST