Medicinal importance of fungal beta-(1 -> 3), (1 -> 6)-glucans

Chen, Jiezhong and Seviour, Robert (2007) Medicinal importance of fungal beta-(1 -> 3), (1 -> 6)-glucans. Mycological Research, 111 6: 635-652. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.02.011


Author Chen, Jiezhong
Seviour, Robert
Title Medicinal importance of fungal beta-(1 -> 3), (1 -> 6)-glucans
Formatted title
 Medicinal importance of fungal β-(1 -> 3), (1 -> 6)-glucans
Journal name Mycological Research   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0953-7562
Publication date 2007-06
Sub-type Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
DOI 10.1016/j.mycres.2007.02.011
Volume 111
Issue 6
Start page 635
End page 652
Total pages 18
Place of publication Oxford, U.K.
Publisher Elsevier
Language eng
Formatted abstract
 Non-cellulosic β-glucans are now recognized as potent immunological activators, and some are used clinically in China and Japan. These β-glucans consist of a backbone of glucose residues linked by β-(1 -> 3)-glycosidic bonds, often with attached side-chain glucose residues joined by beta-(1 -> 6) linkages. The frequency of branching varies. The literature suggests β-glucans are effective in treating diseases like cancer, a range of microbial infections, hypercholesterolaemia, and diabetes. Their mechanisms of action involve them being recognized as non-self molecules, so the immune system is stimulated by their presence. Several receptors have been identified, which include: dectin-1, located on macrophages, which mediates β-glucan activation of phagocytosis and production of cytokines, a response co-ordinated by the toll-like receptor-2. Activated complement receptors on natural killer cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, may also be associated with tumour cytotoxicity. Two other receptors, scavenger and lactosylceramide, bind β-glucans and mediate a series of signal pathways leading to immunological activation. Structurally different β-glucans appear to have different affinities toward these receptors and thus generate markedly different host responses. However, the published data are not always easy to interpret as many of the earlier studies used crude β-glucan preparations with, for the most part, unknown chemical structures. Careful choice of beta-glucan products is essential if their benefits are to be optimized, and a better understanding of how β-glucans bind to receptors should enable more efficient use of their biological activities.
Keyword Mycology
Anticancer
Beta-glucans
Dectin-1
Fungi
Immunomodulators
Beta-glucan receptor
Toll-like receptors
Spontaneously hypertensive-rats
Staphylococcal wound-infection
Innate Antifungal immunity
Alveolar epithelial-cells
Agaricus-blazei Murill
Binding lectin site
Kappa-b activation
Guinea-pig model
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Institutional Status UQ
Additional Notes This document is a journal review.

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Critical review of research, literature review, critical commentary
Collection: UQ Diamantina Institute Publications
 
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Created: Mon, 18 Feb 2008, 14:55:20 EST