Ca2+ is a ubiquitous cellular signal. Altered expression of specific Ca2+ channels and pumps are characterizing features of some cancers. The ability of Ca2+ to regulate both cell death and proliferation, combined with the potential for pharmacological modulation, offers the opportunity for a set of new drug targets in cancer. However, the ubiquity of the Ca2+ signal is often mistakenly presumed to thwart the specific therapeutic targeting of proteins that transport Ca2+. This Review presents evidence to the contrary and addresses the question: which Ca2+ channels and pumps should be targeted?