The effects of saltwater acclimation on neurotransmitters in the lingual salt glands of the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus

Cramp, Rebecca L., Hudson, Nicholas J., Holmberg, Anna, Holmgren, Susanne and Franklin, Craig E. (2007) The effects of saltwater acclimation on neurotransmitters in the lingual salt glands of the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus. Regulatory Peptides, 140 1-2: 55-64. doi:10.1016/j.regpep.2006.11.011


Author Cramp, Rebecca L.
Hudson, Nicholas J.
Holmberg, Anna
Holmgren, Susanne
Franklin, Craig E.
Title The effects of saltwater acclimation on neurotransmitters in the lingual salt glands of the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus
Formatted title
The effects of saltwater acclimation on neurotransmitters in the lingual salt glands of the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus
Journal name Regulatory Peptides   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0167-0115
Publication date 2007-04-05
Year available 2006
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1016/j.regpep.2006.11.011
Volume 140
Issue 1-2
Start page 55
End page 64
Total pages 10
Editor W. E. Schmidt
Place of publication Netherlands
Publisher Elsevier Science BV
Collection year 2008
Language eng
Subject C1
270604 Comparative Physiology
780105 Biological sciences
Formatted abstract
Introduction:
Most avian and reptilian salt glands display marked phenotypic plasticity when animals are exposed to hyperosmotic conditions. In addition, the activity of most salt glands is under considerable control by the nervous system and nerves containing cholinergic, adrenergic and peptidergic neurotransmitters have been identified in avian and reptilian salt gland tissues. The present study sought to determine whether the salt glands of the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus contain the peptidergic neurotransmitters SP, CGRP, VIP, and PACAP and the gaseous neurotransmitter, NO. In addition, we sought to determine whether there was any evidence for the adaptation of the C. porosus salt gland nervous system to hyperosmotic conditions.

Methods:
Salt glands from freshwater- and saltwater-acclimated C. porosus hatchlings were sectioned and examined irnmunohistochemically for neurotransmitters within the tissue.

Results:
Neurons containing SP, CGRP, VIP, PACAP and NO synthase were identified within C. porosus salt glands. There was no difference in the overall number (density) of neurons within SW-acclimated tissues when compared with FW-acclimated animals. However, there was a significant reduction in density of neurons containing SP and PACAP in SW-acclimated animals.

Conclusion:

C. porosus salt glands display phenotypic plasticity following exposure to hyperosmotic conditions. In addition to cholinergic and adrenergic neurons, they contain a variety of peptidergic neurotransmitters and the gaseous neurotransmitter NO. Additionally, there appears to be some evidence of acclimation of the nervous system of C porosus to hypersaline conditions, although the functional significance of these changes remains to be determined. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 
Keyword Endocrinology & Metabolism
Physiology
NO
SP
VIP
CGRP
PACAP
exocrine
adaptation
phenotypic plasticity
Cyclase Activating Peptide
Duck Anas-platyrhynchos
Gene-related Peptide
Substance-p
Salivary-glands
Nitric-oxide
Adrenergic-innervation
Submandibular-gland
Exocrine Secretion
Rat
Q-Index Code C1
Q-Index Status Confirmed Code

 
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Created: Mon, 18 Feb 2008, 16:42:33 EST