Advective Diffusion of Air Bubbles in Turbulent Water Flows

Chanson, Hubert (2008). Advective Diffusion of Air Bubbles in Turbulent Water Flows. In Carlo Gualtieri and Dragutin T. Mihailovic (Ed.), Fluid Mechanics of Environmental Interfaces (pp. 163-196) Leyden, The Netherlands: Taylor & Francis.

Attached Files (Some files may be inaccessible until you login with your UQ eSpace credentials)
Name Description MIMEType Size Downloads
Chapter7_published.pdf Chapter7_published.pdf Click to show the corresponding preview/stream application/pdf 5.49MB 811
Author Chanson, Hubert
Title of chapter Advective Diffusion of Air Bubbles in Turbulent Water Flows
Title of book Fluid Mechanics of Environmental Interfaces
Place of Publication Leyden, The Netherlands
Publisher Taylor & Francis
Publication Year 2008
Sub-type Research book chapter (original research)
Year available 2008
ISBN 978-0-415-44669-3
Editor Carlo Gualtieri
Dragutin T. Mihailovic
Chapter number 7
Start page 163
End page 196
Total pages 34
Language eng
Subjects 290000 Engineering and Technology
240000 Physical Sciences
240500 Classical Physics
240502 Fluid Physics
290800 Civil Engineering
290802 Water and Sanitary Engineering
291800 Interdisciplinary Engineering
291803 Turbulent Flows
B
B1
Division 4 - Environment
770000 - Environmental Management
Abstract/Summary In turbulent free-surface flows, strong interactions between turbulent waters and the atmosphere may lead to some air bubble entrainment. The entrained air is advected within the bulk of the flow and the air-water mixing give a whitish appearance to the flow. Free-surface aeration is commonly observed in Nature, at waterfalls, in mountain rivers and river rapids, and at wave breaking. Man-made self-aeration is also common ranging from artistic fountains to industrial applications and hydraulic structures. This chapter reviews the basic mechanisms of self-aeration in free-surface turbulent flows for a range of turbulent flow conditions. New evidences are presented leading to a better understanding of the advective diffusion of air bubbles. Applications include vertical plunging jets, hydraulic jumps, supercritical open channel flows, and high-velocity water jets. Void fraction distributions may be modelled by some analytical solutions of the advective diffusion equation for air bubbles assuming a quasi-homogenous air-water flow mixture. Theoretical models are developed and the results provide a better characterisation of the complex multiphase flow dynamics. Later the microscopic structure of turbulent bubbly flows is discussed. New developments in metrology and signal processing yield a new level of information on the air-water flow structure and the turbulent eddies advecting the bubbles.
Keyword Air bubble entrainment
Advective diffusion
Air-water flows
Turbulent flows
Hydraulic jumps
High-velocity water jets
Plunging jets
Self-aerated flows
Spillway flows
Stepped spillways
Drop structures
Analytical modelling
References Brocchini, M., and Peregrine, D.H. (2001). "The Dynamics of Strong Turbulence at Free Surfaces. Part 1. Description." Jl Fluid Mech., Vol. 449, pp. 225-254. Cain, P. (1978). "Measurements within Self-Aerated Flow on a Large Spillway." Ph.D. Thesis, Ref. 78-18, Dept. of Civil Engrg., Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. Carslaw, H.S., and Jaeger, J.C. (1959). "Conduction of Heat in Solids." Oxford University Press, London, UK, 2nd ed., 510 pages. Chanson, H. (1988). "A Study of Air Entrainment and Aeration Devices on a Spillway Model." Ph.D. thesis, Ref. 88-8, Dept. of Civil Engrg., University of Canterbury, New Zealand. Chanson, H. (1993). "Self-Aerated Flows on Chutes and Spillways." Jl of Hyd. Engrg., ASCE, Vol. 119, No. 2, pp. 220-243. Discussion : Vol. 120, No. 6, pp. 778-782. Chanson, H. (1997). "Air Bubble Entrainment in Free-Surface Turbulent Shear Flows." Academic Press, London, UK, 401 pages. Comolet, R. (1979). "Vitesse d'Ascension d'une Bulle de Gaz Isolée dans un Liquide Peu Visqueux." ('The Terminal Velocity of a Gas Bubble in a Liquid of Very Low Viscosity.') Jl de Mécanique Appliquée, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 145-171 (in French). Comolet, R. (1979). "Sur le Mouvement d'une bulle de gaz dans un liquide." ('Gas Bubble Motion in a Liquid Medium.') Jl La Houille Blanche, No. 1, pp. 31-42 (in French). Crank, J. (1956). "The Mathematics of Diffusion." Oxford University Press, London, UK. Cummings, P.D., and Chanson, H. (1999). "An Experimental Study of Individual Air Bubble Entrainment at a Planar Plunging Jet." Chem. Eng. Research and Design, Trans. IChemE, Part A, Vol. 77, No. A2, pp. 159-164. Edwards, C.F., and Marx, K.D. (1995a). "Multipoint Statistical Structure of the Ideal Spray, Part I: Fundamental Concepts and the Realization Density." Atomizati & Sprays, Vol. 5, pp. 435-455. Edwards, C.F., and Marx, K.D. (1995b). "Multipoint Statistical Structure of the Ideal Spray, Part II: Evaluating Steadiness using the Inter-particle Time Distribution." Atomizati & Sprays, Vol. 5, pp. 435-455. Ervine, D.A., and Falvey, H.T. (1987). "Behaviour of Turbulent Water Jets in the Atmosphere and in Plunge Pools." Proc. Instn Civ. Engrs., London, Part 2, Mar. 1987, 83, pp. 295-314. Discussion: Part 2, Mar.-June 1988, 85, pp. 359-363. Gonzalez, C.A. (2005). "An Experimental Study of Free-Surface Aeration on Embankment Stepped Chutes." Ph.D. thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 240 pages. Haberman, W.L., and Morton, R.K. (1954). "An Experimental Study of Bubbles Moving in Liquids." Proceedings, ASCE, 387, pp. 227-252. Hayes, M.H. (1996). "Statistical, Digital Signal Processing and Modeling." John Wiley, New York, USA. Hinze, J.O. (1955). "Fundamentals of the Hydrodynamic Mechanism of Splitting in Dispersion Processes." Jl of AIChE, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 289-295. Murzyn, F., Mouaze, D., and Chaplin, J.R. (2005). "Optical Fibre Probe Measurements of Bubbly Flow in Hydraulic Jumps" Intl Jl of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 141-154. Toombes, L. (2002). "Experimental Study of Air-Water Flow Properties on Low-Gradient Stepped Cascades." Ph.D. thesis, Dept of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland. Wood, I.R. (1984). "Air Entrainment in High Speed Flows." Proc. Intl. Symp. on Scale Effects in Modelling Hydraulic Structures, IAHR, Esslingen, Germany, H. Kobus editor, paper 4.1. Wood, I.R. (1991). "Air Entrainment in Free-Surface Flows." IAHR Hydraulic Structures Design Manual No. 4, Hydraulic Design Considerations, Balkema Publ., Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 149 pages. Bibliography Brattberg, T., and Chanson, H. (1998). "Air Entrapment and Air Bubble Dispersion at Two-Dimensional Plunging Water Jets." Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 53, No. 24, Dec., pp. 4113-4127. Errata : 1999, Vol. 54, No. 12, p. 1925. Brattberg, T., Chanson, H., and Toombes, L. (1998). "Experimental Investigations of Free-Surface Aeration in the Developing Flow of Two-Dimensional Water Jets." Jl of Fluids Eng., Trans. ASME, Vol. 120, No. 4, pp. 738-744. Brocchini, M., and Peregrine, D.H. (2001b). "The Dynamics of Strong Turbulence at Free Surfaces. Part 2. Free-surface Boundary Conditions." Jl Fluid Mech., Vol. 449, pp. 255-290. Carosi, G., and Chanson, H. (2006). "Air-Water Time and Length Scales in Skimming Flows on a Stepped Spillway. Application to the Spray Characterisation." Report No. CH59/06, Div. of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, July, 142 pages. Cartellier, A., and Achard, J.L. (1991). "Local Phase Detection Probes in Fluid/Fluid Two-Phase Flows." Rev. Sci. Instrum., Vol. 62, No. 2, pp. 279-303. Chang, K.A., Lim, H.J., and Su, C.B. (2003). "Fiber Optic Reflectometer for Velocity and Fraction Ratio Measurements in Multiphase Flows." Rev. Scientific Inst., Vol. 74, No. 7, pp. 3559-3565. Discussion & Closure: 2004, Vol. 75, No. 1, pp. 284-286. Chanson, H. (1989). "Study of Air Entrainment and Aeration Devices." Jl of Hyd. Res., IAHR, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 301-319. Chanson, H. (2002a). "Air-Water Flow Measurements with Intrusive Phase-Detection Probes. Can we Improve their Interpretation ?." Jl of Hyd. Engrg., ASCE, Vol. 128, No. 3, pp. 252-255. Chanson, H,. (2002b). "An Experimental Study of Roman Dropshaft Operation : Hydraulics, Two-Phase Flow, Acoustics." Report CH50/02, Dept of Civil Eng., Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 99 pages. Chanson, H. (2004a). "Environmental Hydraulics of Open Channel Flows." Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 483 pages. Chanson, H. (2004b). "Unsteady Air-Water Flow Measurements in Sudden Open Channel Flows." Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 899-909. Chanson, H. (2004). "Fiber Optic Reflectometer for Velocity and Fraction Ratio Measurements in Multiphase Flows. Letter to the Editor" Rev. Scientific Inst., Vo. 75, No. 1, pp. 284-285. Chanson, H. (2006). "Air Bubble Entrainment in Hydraulic Jumps. Similitude and Scale Effects." Report No. CH57/05, Dept. of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, Jan., 119 pages. Chanson, H. (2007). "Bubbly Flow Structure in Hydraulic Jump." European Journal of Mechanics B/Fluids, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 367-384 (DOI:10.1016/j.euromechflu.2006.08.001). Chanson, H. (2007). "Air Entrainment Processes in Rectangular Dropshafts at Large Flows." Journal of Hydraulic Research, IAHR, Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 42-53. Chanson, H., Aoki, S., and Hoque, A. (2006). "Bubble Entrainment and Dispersion in Plunging Jet Flows: Freshwater versus Seawater." Jl of Coastal Research, Vol. 22, No. 3, May, pp. 664-677. Chanson, H., and Carosi, G. (2007). "Turbulent Time and Length Scale Measurements in High-Velocity Open Channel Flows." Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 385-401 (DOI 10.1007/s00348-006-0246-2). Chanson, H., and Manasseh, R. (2003). "Air Entrainment Processes in a Circular Plunging Jet. Void Fraction and Acoustic Measurements." Jl of Fluids Eng., Trans. ASME, Vol. 125, No. 5, Sept., pp. 910-921. Chanson, H., and Toombes, L. (2002). "Air-Water Flows down Stepped chutes : Turbulence and Flow Structure Observations." Intl Jl of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 28, No. 11, pp. 1737-1761. Crowe, C., Sommerfield, M., and Tsuji, Y. (1998). "Multiphase Flows with Droplets and Particles." CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA, 471 pages. Cummings, P.D. (1996). "Aeration due to Breaking Waves." Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Civil Engrg., University of Queensland, Australia. Cummings, P.D., and Chanson, H. (1997a). "Air Entrainment in the Developing Flow Region of Plunging Jets. Part 1 Theoretical Development." Jl of Fluids Eng., Trans. ASME, Vol. 119, No. 3, pp. 597-602. Cummings, P.D., and Chanson, H. (1997b). "Air Entrainment in the Developing Flow Region of Plunging Jets. Part 2 : Experimental." Jl of Fluids Eng., Trans. ASME, Vol. 119, No. 3, pp. 603-608. Gonzalez, C.A., and Chanson, H. (2004). "Interactions between Cavity Flow and Main Stream Skimming Flows: an Experimental Study." Can Jl of Civ. Eng., Vol. 31. Gonzalez, C.A., Takahashi, M., and Chanson, H. (2005). "Effects of Step Roughness in Skimming Flows: an Experimental Study." Research Report No. CE160, Dept. of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, July, 149 pages. Heinlein, J., and Frtisching, U. (2006). "Droplet Clustering in Sprays." Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 464-472. Jones, O.C., and Delhaye, J.M. (1976). "Transient and Statistical Measurement Techniques for two-Phase Flows : a Critical Review." Intl Jl of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 3, pp. 89-116. Luong, J.T.K., and Sojka, P.E. (1999). "Unsteadiness in Effervescent Sprays." Atomization & Sprays, Vol. 9, pp. 87-109. Noymer, P.D. (2000). "The Use of Single-Point Measurements to Characterise Dynamic Behaviours in Spray." Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 29, pp. 228-237. Straub, L.G., and Anderson, A.G. (1958). "Experiments on Self-Aerated Flow in Open Channels." Jl of Hyd. Div., Proc. ASCE, Vol. 84, No. HY7, paper 1890, pp. 1890-1 to 1890-35. Toombes, L., and Chanson, H. (2007). "Surface Waves and Roughness in Self-Aerated Supercritical Flow." Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 259-270 (DOI 10.1007/s10652-007-9022-y). Wood, I.R. (1983). "Uniform Region of Self-Aerated Flow." Jl Hyd. Eng., ASCE, Vol. 109, No. 3, pp. 447-461. Internet resources Chanson, H. (2000). "Self-aeration on chute and stepped spillways - Air entrainment and flow aeration in open channel flows ." Internet resource. (Internet address : http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/self_aer.html) Chanson, H., and Manasseh, R. (2000). "Air Entrainment at a Circular Plunging Jet. Physical and Acoustic Characteristics - Internet Database." Internet resource. (Internet address : http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/bubble/) Cummings, P.D., and Chanson, H. (1997). "Air Entrainment in the Developing Flow Region of Plunging Jets. Extended Electronic Manuscript." Jl of Fluids Engineering - Data Bank, ASME (Electronic Files : 6,904 kBytes). (Internet address : http://www.uq.edu.au/~e2hchans/data/jfe97.html) Open access research reprints in air-water flows (Internet address : http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/list.php?terms=chanson) (Internet address : http://eprint.uq.edu.au/view/person/Chanson,_Hubert.html)
Q-Index Code B1
Q-Index Status Provisional Code
Additional Notes The full bibliographic details are : CHANSON, H. (2008). "Advective Diffusion of Air Bubbles in Turbulent Water Flows." in "Fluid Mechanics of Environmental Interfaces", Taylor & Francis, Leiden, The Netherlands, C. GUALTIERI and D.T. MIHAILOVIC Editors, Chapter 7, pp. 163-196 (34 pages) (ISBN 978-0-415-44669-3).

Document type: Book Chapter
Collection: School of Civil Engineering Publications
 
Versions
Version Filter Type
Citation counts: Google Scholar Search Google Scholar
Access Statistics: 823 Abstract Views, 811 File Downloads  -  Detailed Statistics
Created: Sun, 03 Feb 2008, 14:04:25 EST by Hubert Chanson on behalf of Research Management Office