Activated sludge flocculation: Direct determination of the effect of calcium ions

Biggs, C. A., Ford, A. M. and Lant, P. A. (2001) Activated sludge flocculation: Direct determination of the effect of calcium ions. Water Science And Technology, 43 11: 75-82.


Author Biggs, C. A.
Ford, A. M.
Lant, P. A.
Title Activated sludge flocculation: Direct determination of the effect of calcium ions
Journal name Water Science And Technology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0273-1223
Publication date 2001
Sub-type Article (original research)
Volume 43
Issue 11
Start page 75
End page 82
Total pages 8
Editor P. A. Wilderer
Place of publication London
Publisher IWA Publishing/Portland Press
Language eng
Subject 05 Environmental Sciences
C1
0904 Chemical Engineering
0907 Environmental Engineering
Abstract The effect of calcium on activated sludge flocculation dynamics is investigated using a unique experimental technique. The technique allows on-line analysis of the size of activated sludge flocs during flocculation and provides valuable insight into the mechanisms of flocculation. Activated sludge samples were firstly sonicated for 3 minutes at 50W and then stirred at 100 rpm. The floc size was subsequently measured on-line using a Malvern Mastersizer/E. For concentrations of calcium less than 4 meq/L no significant increase in final floc size was observed even though an increase in the initial rate of change of floc size could be seen. Addition of calcium greater than 4 meq/L resulted in a dramatic increase in floc size. Results from this investigation support the theory that cations are involved in flocculation through cationic bridging, and will be used in ongoing investigations to model the flocculation process.
Keyword Engineering, Environmental
Environmental Sciences
Water Resources
activated sludge
calcium
cationic bridging
flocculation
Flocs
Q-Index Code C1

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collection: School of Chemical Engineering Publications
 
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Created: Fri, 25 Jan 2008, 15:26:34 EST