Air pollution and child respiratory health: a case-crossover study in Australia and New Zealand

Barnett, Adrian G., Williams, Gail M., Schwartz, Joel, Neller, Anne H., Best, Trudi L., Petroeschevsky, Anna L. and Simpson, Rod W. (2005) Air pollution and child respiratory health: a case-crossover study in Australia and New Zealand. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 171 11: 1272-1278. doi:10.1164/rccm.200411-1586OC

Author Barnett, Adrian G.
Williams, Gail M.
Schwartz, Joel
Neller, Anne H.
Best, Trudi L.
Petroeschevsky, Anna L.
Simpson, Rod W.
Title Air pollution and child respiratory health: a case-crossover study in Australia and New Zealand
Journal name American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 1073-449X
Publication date 2005-03-11
Year available 2005
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1164/rccm.200411-1586OC
Volume 171
Issue 11
Start page 1272
End page 1278
Total pages 7
Editor E. Abraham
C. Shepherd
Place of publication New York
Publisher American Thoracic Society
Collection year 2005
Language eng
Subject C1
321027 Respiratory Diseases
730204 Child health
Abstract RATIONALE: The strength of the association between outdoor air pollution and hospital admissions in children has not yet been well defined. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of outdoor air pollution on respiratory morbidity in children after controlling for the confounding effects of weather, season, and other pollutants. METHODS: The study used data on respiratory hospital admissions in children (three age groups: < 1, 1-4, and 5-14 years) for five cities in Australia and two in New Zealand. Time series of daily numbers of hospital admissions were analyzed using the case-crossover method; the results from cities were combined using a random-effects meta-analysis. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Significant increases across the cities were observed for hospital admissions in children for pneumonia and acute bronchitis (0, 1-4 years), respiratory disease (0, 1-4, 5-14 years), and asthma (5-14 years). These increases were found for particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and less than 10 microm (PM10), nephelometry, NO2, and SO2. The largest association found was a 6.0% increase in asthma admissions (5-14 years) in relation to a 5.1-ppb increase in 24-hour NO2. CONCLUSIONS: This study found strong and consistent associations between outdoor air pollution and short-term increases in childhood hospital admissions. A number of different pollutants showed significant associations, and these were distinct from any temperature (warm or cool) effects.
Keyword air pollutants
respiration disorders
Critical Care Medicine
Respiratory System
Utah Valley
Q-Index Code C1

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Created: Wed, 02 Jan 2008, 11:06:53 EST by Thelma Whitbourne on behalf of School of Public Health