The Flag-2 locus, an ancestral gene cluster, is potentially associated with a novel flagellar system from Escherichia coli

Ren, Chuan-Peng, Beatson, Scott A., Parkhill, Julian and Pallen, Mark J. (2005) The Flag-2 locus, an ancestral gene cluster, is potentially associated with a novel flagellar system from Escherichia coli. Journal of Bacteriology, 187 4: 1430-1440. doi:10.1128/JB.187.4.1430-1440.2005

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Author Ren, Chuan-Peng
Beatson, Scott A.
Parkhill, Julian
Pallen, Mark J.
Title The Flag-2 locus, an ancestral gene cluster, is potentially associated with a novel flagellar system from Escherichia coli
Journal name Journal of Bacteriology   Check publisher's open access policy
ISSN 0021-9193
1098-5530
Publication date 2005-02
Sub-type Article (original research)
DOI 10.1128/JB.187.4.1430-1440.2005
Open Access Status File (Publisher version)
Volume 187
Issue 4
Start page 1430
End page 1440
Total pages 11
Place of publication Washington, DC, United States
Publisher American Society for Microbiology
Language eng
Abstract Escherichia coli K-12 possesses two adjacent, divergent, promoterless flagellar genes, fhiA-mbhA, that are absent from Salmonella enterica. Through bioinformatics analysis, we found that these genes are remnants of an ancestral 44-gene cluster and are capable of encoding a novel flagellar system, Flag-2. In enteroaggregative E. coli strain 042, there is a frameshift in lfgC that is likely to have inactivated the system in this strain. Tiling path PCR studies showed that the Flag-2 cluster is present in 15 of 72 of the well-characterized ECOR strains. The Flag-2 system resembles the lateral flagellar systems of Aeromonas and Vibrio, particularly in its apparent dependence on RpoN. Unlike the conventional Flag-1 flagellin, the Flag-2 flagellin shows a remarkable lack of sequence polymorphism. The Flag-2 gene cluster encodes a flagellar type III secretion system (including a dedicated flagellar sigma-antisigma combination), thus raising the number of distinct type III secretion systems in Escherichia/Shigella to five. The presence of the Flag-2 cluster at: identical sites in E. coli and its close relative Citrobacter rodentium, combined with its absence from S. enterica, suggests that it was acquired by horizontal gene transfer after the former two species diverged from Salmonella. The presence of Flag-2-like gene clusters in Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudatuberculosis, and Chromobacterium violaceum suggests that coexistence of two flagellar systems within the same species is more common than previously suspected. The fact that the Flag-2 gene cluster was not discovered in the first 10 Escherichia/Shigella genome sequences studied emphasizes the importance of maintaining an energetic program of genome sequencing for this important taxonomic group.
Keyword Microbiology
Complete Genome Sequence
Lateral Flagella
Vibrio-parahaemolyticus
Biofilm Formation
Yersinia-pestis
Sigma-factor
Polar Flagella
Cell Adherence
Salmonella
Aeromonas
Q-Index Code C1

Document type: Journal Article
Sub-type: Article (original research)
Collections: Excellence in Research Australia (ERA) - Collection
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences
 
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Created: Wed, 19 Sep 2007, 18:33:18 EST