Wiji Thukul, Seno Gumira Ajidarma and Ratna Sarumpaet are 'outspoken' Indonesian literary figures. One obvious reason why they are considered outspoken is because these writers expose the practice of state violence in the New Order era in their works. It is generally understood that the practice of state violence in Indonesia is a sensitive and complex problem. This thesis will discuss the practice of state violence which is exposed in the works of Wiji Thukul, Seno Gumira Ajidarma and Ratna Sarumpaet. It will argue that the works of these three authors are not merely works of art but also a medium of resistance towards the practice of state violence in Indonesia. Therefore, this thesis will try to answer several questions namely: why does state violence become an important source of inspiration for these authors. How do they describe the practice of state violence? And what are their aims in exposing state violence in their works?
In order to analyse and answer these questions, first, I do not limit my reading process to textual reading (close textual reading) but I also stress the importance of the ·extra-textual' factors in the process of my reading and analysis of the works of the three authors. Firstly, this method is applied by comparing the textual 'reality' with the extra-textual reality. In other words I carry out contextual reading and analysis of the works of Wiji Thukul, Seno Gumira Ajidarma and Ratna Sarumpaet. Secondly, an appropriate contextual reading process can only be achieved by utilizing another analytical tool that is the definition and discourse of state violence itself. Therefore these methods will examine the data found both in the text of the works of the authors and other texts relevant to the discourse of state violence.